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Blanching is a cooking process wherein the food substance, usually a vegetable or fruit, is plunged into boiling water, removed after a brief, timed interval, and finally plunged into iced water or placed under cold running water (shocking (cooking) or refreshing[1]) to halt the cooking process.

The meaning of blanching is "to whiten", but this is not always the purpose of blanching in cooking. Food is blanched to soften it, or to partly or fully cook it, or to remove a strong taste (for example of cabbage or onions).[2]

When almonds or pistachios are blanched, the skin of the nut (botanically the seed coat surrounding the embryo) softens and can be easily removed later.

The technique of blanching vegetables is best illustrated by the requirement to stop cooking asparagus, otherwise it would become soggy due to the asparagus continuing to cook after it is removed from the boiling water. To cook asparagus using the blanching method, the shoots are boiled for 30 seconds, and then to stop further cooking they are dipped into cold or ice water.

Contents [hide]
1 Other definitions
2 See also
3 References
4 External links
Other definitions[edit]
Blanching may simply mean boiling in water for an extended period to remove unpleasant flavours such as tannins. For example, a recommended treatment for African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa), is dehulling followed by blanching in water for 40 minutes at 100 °C.[3]

It is recommended that protein-rich salads be eaten cold (e.g., tuna, turkey, ham, shrimp, lobster, and chicken) are prepared by immersing these protein foods in boiling water for 30 seconds followed by fast chilling.[4] In addition celery, "which is almost always a component of these salads ... should be treated so as to minimize its bacterial content".[4]

In the case of French fries, blanching often refers to pre-cooking the French fries in oil at a lower temperature prior to finishing them at a higher temperature. The advantage is that the blanching step cooks the potato. The second step at the higher temperature crisps the outside.[5]

In the early 1960s, McDonald's Restaurant in Charlotte, North Carolina, used a process on their potatoes they called 'blanching.' After the potatoes were mechanically peeled and then manually pushed through a slicer producing raw French fries, they were batch-soaked in room-temperature water for 3–5 minutes to remove starch, which they called blanching.[citation needed]

See also[edit]
Portal iconFood portal
Parboiling
References[edit]
Desrossier, NW, The technology of food preservation, The AVI Publishing Company, 1965, p. 150-151
Jump up ^ Ruhlman, Michael. 2013. [1]
Jump up ^ Child, J.; Bertholle, L.; Beck, S. 1961, 1983, 2001. Mastering the art of French cooking. Alfred A. Knopf.
Jump up ^ Aminigo ER, Metzger LE: Pretreatment of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa), effect of soaking and blanching on the quality of African yam bean seed [2]
^ Jump up to: a b "Food Protection Training Manual". New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene. 2010.
Jump up ^ Blumenthal, Heston (17 April 2012). "How to cook perfect spuds". the age. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
External links[edit]
Parboiling (or leaching) is the partial boiling of food as the first step in cooking.

The word is often used when referring to parboiled rice. Parboiling can also be used for removing poisonous or foul-tasting substances from foodstuffs, and to soften vegetables before roasting them.

Contents [hide]
1 Basic technique
2 Parboiled rice
3 See also
4 External links
Basic technique[edit]
The food items are added to boiling water and cooked until they start to soften, then removed before they are fully cooked. Parboiling is usually used to partially cook an item which will then be cooked another way such as braising, grilling, or stir-frying. Parboiling differs from blanching in that one does not cool the items using cold water or ice after removing them from the boiling water.

Parboiled rice[edit]
Main article: Parboiled rice
Sometimes raw rice or paddy is dehusked by using steam. This steam also partially boils the rice while dehusking. This process generally changes the colour of rice from white to a bit reddish. This type of rice is eaten in the districts of Udupi and Dakshina Kannada of Karnataka state, in the state of Kerala, and in most parts of Tamil Nadu and West Bengal in India. West Africa and the Caribbean African diaspora are also accustomed to parboiling rice.

See also[edit]
Toast is bread that has been browned by exposure to radiant heat. This browning is the result of a Maillard reaction, altering the flavor of the bread as well as making it firmer so it holds toppings more securely. Toasting is a common method of making stale bread more palatable. Bread is usually toasted using a toaster, an electrical appliance with heating elements. Toast is most commonly eaten with butter or margarine and sweetened toppings. Toast is a common breakfast food. Toast may contain carcinogens caused by the browning process.[citation needed]

Contents [hide]
1 Methods
2 Consumption
3 Health concerns
4 Cultural references
5 Other foods which are toasted
6 See also
7 References
Methods[edit]

A classic two-slot electric toaster
In a modern kitchen, the usual method of toasting bread is by the use of a toaster, an electrical appliance made for that purpose. To use a modern toaster, sliced bread is placed into the narrow slots on the top of the toaster, the toaster is tuned to the correct setting (some may have more elaborate settings than others) and a lever on the front is pushed down. The toast is ready when the lever pops up along with the toast. If the bread is insufficiently toasted, the lever can be pressed down again.

It can also be toasted by a new modern toaster which are often used in hotels and meetings. These work by having one heating element on the top and one on the bottom with a metal conveyor belt in the middle which carries the toast slowly between the two heating elements. This allows toast to be made consistently as more slices can be added at any time without waiting for previous ones to pop up.

Bread can also be toasted under a grill (or broiler), in an open oven, or lying on an oven rack. Toaster ovens are special small appliances made for toasting bread or for heating small amounts of other foods.

Bread can also be toasted by holding it near but not directly over an open flame, such as a campfire or fireplace; special toasting utensils (e.g. toasting forks) are made for this purpose. Before the invention of modern cooking appliances such as toasters and grills, this was the only available method of producing toast.

Toast is made using slices of bread. Many brands of ready sliced bread are available, some specifically marketing their suitability for toasting.

Consumption[edit]


A plain dry slice of toast on a plate
Toast is most commonly eaten with butter or margarine spread over it, and may be served with preserves, spreads, or other toppings in addition to or instead of butter. Toast with jam or marmalade is popular. A few other condiments that can be enjoyed with toast are chocolate spread, cream cheese, and peanut butter. Yeast extracts such as Marmite in the UK, New Zealand and South Africa, and Vegemite in Australia are national traditions. Some sandwiches, such as the BLT, call for toast to be used rather than bread.

Toast is an important component of many breakfasts, and is also important in some traditional bland specialty diets for people with gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea.

In the United Kingdom, a dish popular with children is a soft-boiled egg eaten with toast soldiers at breakfast. Strips of toast (the soldiers) are dipped into the runny yolk of a boiled egg through a hole made in the top of the eggshell, and eaten.[1]

In southern Sri Lanka it is common for toast to be paired with a curry soup and mint tea.

By 2013 "artisanal toast" had become a significant food trend in upscale American cities like San Francisco, where some commentators decried the increasing number of restaurants and bakeries selling freshly made toast at what was perceived to be an unreasonably high price.[2][3]

Health concerns[edit]
Toasted bread slices may contain high levels of acrylamide, a carcinogen generated during the browning process.[4] High acrylamide levels can also be found in other heated carbohydrate-rich foods.[5] The darker the surface colour of the toast, the higher its concentration of acrylamide.[4] That is why according to the recommendations made by the British Food Standards Agency, bread should be toasted to the lightest colour acceptable.[6]

Cultural references[edit]
Streetband released the novelty song "Toast" in 1978.[7] The band attempted to use toast as an instrument and included the sound of toast being scraped later in the track.[citation needed]

Buttered toast has a perceived tendency, when dropped, to land with the buttered side to the floor, the least desirable outcome. Although originally a pessimistic joke, a 2001 study of the buttered toast phenomenon found that when dropped from a table, a buttered slice of toast landed butter-side down at least 62% of the time.[8] The phenomenon is widely believed to be attributable to the combination of the size of the toast and the height of the typical dining table, which means that the toast will not rotate far enough to right itself before encountering the floor.[9]

A joke that plays on this tendency is the buttered cat paradox; if cats always land on their feet and buttered toast always lands buttered side down, it questions what happens when buttered toast is attached to a cat's back.

Other foods which are toasted[edit]
Cheese[10] and marshmallows are also toasted by exposure to dry radiant heat.[11] A toasted cheese sandwich features both toasted cheese and toa